This is a quiz that contains NCLEX review questions for Hepatitis (A, B, C, D, E).
Viral hepatitis occurs when a virus attacks the liver. There are various types of viral hepatitis and each type varies on how it is transmitted, if it will lead to an acute or chronic infection, vaccines available, and preventative measures.
As a nurse providing care to a patient with hepatitis, it is important to know the signs and symptoms, pathophysiology, nursing management, education, and complications of the disease.
Before taking the quiz, don’t forget to watch the hepatitis nursing lecture.
In the previous NCLEX review series, I explained about other GI disorders you may be asked about on the NCLEX exam, so be sure to check out those reviews and quizzes as well.
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Hepatitis NCLEX Questions
1. The liver receives blood from two sources. The _____________ is responsible for pumping blood rich in nutrients to the liver.
A. hepatic artery
B. hepatic portal vein
C. mesenteric artery
D. hepatic iliac vein
The answer is B. The liver receives blood from two sources. The hepatic portal vein is responsible for pumping blood rich in nutrients to the liver.
2. Which statements are INCORRECT regarding the anatomy and physiology of the liver? Select all that apply:
A. The liver has 3 lobes and 8 segments.
B. The liver produces bile which is released into the small intestine to help digest fats.
C. The liver turns urea, a by-product of protein breakdown, into ammonia.
D. The liver plays an important role in the coagulation process.
The answers are A and C. The liver has 2 lobes (not 3), and the liver turns ammonia (NOT urea), which is a by-product of protein breakdown, into ammonia. All the other statements are true about liver’s anatomy and physiology.
3. You’re providing an in-service on viral hepatitis to a group of healthcare workers. You are teaching them about the types of viral hepatitis that can turn into chronic infections. Which types are known to cause ACUTE infections ONLY? Select all that apply:
A. Hepatitis A
B. Hepatitis B
C. Hepatitis C
D. Hepatitis D
E. Hepatitis E
The answers are A and E. Only Hepatitis A and E cause ACUTE infections…not chronic. Hepatitis B, C, and D can cause both acute and chronic infections.
4. Which patients below are at risk for developing complications related to a chronic hepatitis infection, such as cirrhosis, liver cancer, and liver failure? Select all that apply:
A. A 55-year-old male with Hepatitis A.
B. An infant who contracted Hepatitis B at birth.
C. A 32-year-old female with Hepatitis C who reports using IV drugs.
D. A 50-year-old male with alcoholism and Hepatitis D.
E. A 30-year-old who contracted Hepatitis E.
The answers are B, C, and D. Infants or young children who contract Hepatitis B are at a very high risk of developing chronic Hepatitis B (which is why option B is correct). Option C is correct because most cases of Hepatitis C turn into chronic cases and IV drug use increases this risk even more. Option D is correct because Hepatitis D occurs when Hepatitis B is present and constant usage of alcohol damages the liver. Therefore, the patient is at high risk of developing chronic hepatitis. Hepatitis A and E tend to only cause acute infections….not chronic.
5. A patient is diagnosed with Hepatitis A. The patient asks how a person can become infected with this condition. You know the most common route of transmission is?
The answer is D. Hepatitis A is most commonly transmitted via the fecal-oral route.
6. Which of the following is NOT a common source of transmission for Hepatitis A? Select all that apply:
The answers are C and D. The most common source for transmission of Hepatitis A is water and food.
7. A 36-year-old patient’s lab work show anti-HAV and IgG present in the blood. As the nurse you would interpret this blood work as?
A. The patient has an active infection of Hepatitis A.
B. The patient has recovered from a previous Hepatitis A infection and is now immune to it.
C. The patient is in the preicetric phase of viral Hepatitis.
D. The patient is in the icteric phase of viral Hepatitis.
The answer is B. When a patient has anti-HAV (antibodies of the Hepatitis A virus) and IgG, this means the patient HAD a past infection of Hepatitis A but it is now gone, and the patient is immune to Hepatitis A now. If the patient had anti-HAV and IgM, this means the patient has an active infection of Hepatitis A.
8. TRUE or FALSE: A patient with Hepatitis A is contagious about 2 weeks before signs and symptoms appear and 1-3 weeks after the symptoms appear.
The answer is TRUE.
9. A 25-year-old patient was exposed to the Hepatitis A virus at a local restaurant one week ago. What education is important to provide to this patient?
A. Inform the patient to notify the physician when signs and symptoms of viral Hepatitis start to appear.
B. Reassure the patient the chance of acquiring the virus is very low.
C. Inform the patient it is very important to obtain the Hepatitis A vaccine immediately to prevent infection.
D. Inform the patient to promptly go to the local health department to receive immune globulin.
The answer is D. Since the patient was exposed to Hepatitis A, the patient would need to take preventive measures to prevent infection because infection is possible. The patient should not wait until signs and symptoms appear because the patient can be contagious 2 weeks BEFORE signs and symptoms appear. The vaccine would not prevent Hepatitis A from this exposure, but from possible future exposures because it takes the vaccine 30 days to start working. The best answer is option D. The patient would need to receive immune globulin to provide temporary immunity within 2 weeks of exposure.
10. Select all the ways a person can become infected with Hepatitis B:
A. Contaminated food/water
B. During the birth process
C. IV drug use
D. Undercooked pork or wild game
F. Sexual intercourse
The answers are B, C, E, and F. Hepatitis B is spread via blood and body fluids. It could be transmitted via the birthing process, IV drug use, hemodialysis, or sexual intercourse etc.
11. A patient has completed the Hepatitis B vaccine series. What blood result below would demonstrate the vaccine series was successful at providing immunity to Hepatitis B?
A. Positive IgG
B. Positive HBsAg
C. Positive IgM
D. Positive anti-HBs
The answer is D. A positive anti-HBs (Hepatitis B surface antibody) indicates either a past infection of Hepatitis B that is now cleared and the patient is immune, OR that the vaccine has been successful at providing immunity. A positive HBsAg (Hepatitis B surface antigen) indicates an active infection.
12. A patient has lab work drawn and it shows a positive HBsAg. What education will you provide to the patient?
A. Avoid sexual intercourse or intimacy such as kissing until blood work is negative.
B. The patient is now recovered from a previous Hepatitis B infection and is now immune.
C. The patient is not a candidate from antiviral or interferon medications.
D. The patient is less likely to develop a chronic infection.
The answer is A. A positive HBsAg (hepatitis B surface antigen) indicates an active Hepatitis B infection. Therefore, the patient should avoid sexual intercourse and other forms of intimacy until their HBsAg is negative.
13. A patient with Hepatitis A asks you about the treatment options for this condition. Your response is?
A. Antiviral medications
C. Supportive care
D. Hepatitis A vaccine
The answer is C. There is no current treatment for Hepatitis A but supportive care and rest. Treatments for the other types of Hepatitis such as B, C, and D include antiviral or interferon (mainly the chronic cases) along with rest.
14. A patient was exposed to Hepatitis B recently. Postexposure precautions include vaccination and administration of HBIg (Hepatitis B Immune globulin). HBIg needs to be given as soon as possible, preferably ___________ after exposure to be effective.
A. 2 weeks
B. 24 hours
C. 1 month
D. 7 days
The answer is B. HBIg should be given 24 hours after exposure to maximum effectiveness of temporary immunity against Hepatitis B. It would be given within 12 hours after birth to an infant born to a mother who has Hepatitis B.
15. You’re providing education to a patient with an active Hepatitis B infection. What will you include in their discharge instructions? Select all that apply:
A. “Take acetaminophen as needed for pain.”
B. “Eat large meals that are spread out through the day.”
C. “Follow a diet low in fat and high in carbs.”
D. “Do not share toothbrushes, razors, utensils, drinking cups, or any other type of personal hygiene product.”
E. “Perform aerobic exercises daily to maintain strength.”
The answers are C and D. The patient should NOT take acetaminophen (Tylenol) due to its effective on the liver. The patient should eat small (NOT large), but frequent meals…this may help with the nausea. The patient should rest (not perform aerobic exercises daily) because this will help with liver regeneration.
16. What is the MOST common transmission route of Hepatitis C?
A. Blood transfusion
B. Sharps injury
C. Long-term dialysis
D. IV drug use
The answer is D. IV drug use is the MOST common transmission route of Hepatitis C.
17. A patient is diagnosed with Hepatitis D. What statement is true about this type of viral Hepatitis? Select all that apply:
A. The patient will also have the Hepatitis B virus.
B. Hepatitis D is most common in Southern and Eastern Europe, Mediterranean, and Middle East.
C. Prevention of Hepatitis D includes handwashing and the Hepatitis D vaccine.
D. Hepatitis D is most commonly transmitted via the fecal-oral route.
The answers are A and B. These are true statements about Hepatitis D. Prevention for Hepatitis D includes handwashing and the Hepatitis B vaccine (since it occurs only with the Hepatitis B virus). It is transmitted via blood.
18. Select all the signs and symptoms associated with Hepatitis?
B. Bilirubin 1 mg/dL
C. Ammonia 15 mcg/dL
D. Dark urine
E. Vision changes
F. Yellowing of the sclera
H. Loss of appetite
The answers are A, D, F, G, and H. The bilirubin and ammonia levels are normal in these options, but they would be abnormal in Hepatitis. A normal bilirubin is 1 or less, and a normal ammonia is 15-45 mcg/dL.
19. A patient with Hepatitis has a bilirubin of 6 mg/dL. What findings would correlate with this lab result? Select all that apply:
A. None because this bilirubin level is normal
B. Yellowing of the skin and sclera
C. Clay-colored stools
D. Bluish discoloration on the flanks of the abdomen
E. Dark urine
F. Mental status changes
The answers are B, C, and E. This is associated with a high bilirubin level. A normal bilirubin level is 1 or less.
20. A patient with Hepatitis is extremely confused. The patient is diagnosed with Hepatic Encephalopathy. What lab result would correlate with this mental status change?
A. Ammonia 100 mcg/dL
B. Bilirubin 7 mg/dL
C. ALT 56 U/L
D. AST 10 U/L
The answer is A. When ammonia levels become high (normal 15-45 mcg/dL) it affects brain function. Therefore, the nurse would see mental status changes in a patient with this ammonia level.
21. The physician writes an order for the administration of Lactulose. What lab result indicates this medication was successful?
A. Bilirubin <1 mg/dL
B. ALT 8 U/L
C. Ammonia 16 mcg/dL
D. AST 10 U/L
The answer is C. Lactulose is ordered to decrease a high ammonia level. It will cause excretion of ammonia via the stool. A normal ammonia level would indicate the medication was successful (normal ammonia level 15-45 mcg/dL).
22. How is Hepatitis E transmitted?
D. Body fluids
The answer is A.
23. Which patient below is at MOST risk for developing a complication related to a Hepatitis E infection?
A. A 45-year-old male with diabetes.
B. A 26-year-old female in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy.
C. A 12-year-old female with a ventricle septal defect.
D. A 63-year-old male with cardiovascular disease.
The answer is B. Patients who are in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy are at a HIGH risk of developing a complication related to a Hepatitis E infection.
24. What is the BEST preventive measure to take to help prevent ALL types of viral Hepatitis?
B. Proper disposal of needles
C. Hand hygiene
D. Blood and organ donation screening
The answer is C. Hand hygiene can help prevent all types of viral hepatitis. However, not all types of viral Hepatitis have a vaccine available or are spread through needle sticks or blood/organs donations. Remember Hepatitis A and E are spread only via fecal-oral routes.
25. Select all the types of viral Hepatitis that have preventive vaccines available in the United States?
A. Hepatitis A
B. Hepatitis B
C. Hepatitis C
D. Hepatitis D
E. Hepatitis E
The answers are A and B. Currently there is only a vaccine for Hepatitis A and B in the U.S.
26. A patient is prescribed Peginterferon alfa-2a. The nurse will prepare to administer this medication what route?
The answer is C. This medication is administered subq.
27. A patient with viral Hepatitis states their flu-like symptoms have subsided. However, they now have yellowing of the skin and sclera along with dark urine. Based on this finding, this is what phase of Hepatitis?
The answer is A. The Preicteric (prodromal) Phase: flulike symptoms…joint pain, fatigue, nausea vomiting, abdominal pain change in taste, liver enzymes and bilirubin increasing….Icteric Phase: decrease in the flu-like symptoms but will have jaundice and dark urine (buildup of bilirubin) yellowing of skin and white part of the eyeball, clay-colored stool (bilirubin not going to stool to give it’s normal brown color) enlarged liver and pain in this area….Posticteric (convalescent) Phase: jaundice and dark urine start to subside and stool returns to normal brown color, liver enzymes and bilirubin decrease to normal
28. During the posticteric phase of Hepatitis the nurse would expect to find? Select all that apply:
A. Increased ALT and AST levels along with an increased bilirubin level
B. Decreased liver enzymes and bilirubin level
C. Flu-like symptoms
D. Resolved jaundice and dark urine
The answers are B and D. Posticteric (convalescent) Phase: jaundice and dark urine start to subside and stool returns to normal brown color, liver enzymes and bilirubin decrease to normal
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