In Anatomy & Physiology, A & P, you will have to know how to label the cell structure and remember each of the cells function. In this study guide, I give you the highlights of the organelles functions and some tips on how to remember them.
When you are done with reading the study guide, be sure to the cell structure quiz. You may see some of these same questions on an Anatomy & Physiology exam.
Study Guide for Anatomy & Physiology Cellular Structure
All living organisms are made up of a cellular system. Cells are the smallest living units in our body. It is estimated the human body contains about 50 to 100 trillion cells. Each cell performs necessary functions to sustain life.
- Disposal of waste
- Maintaining its shape & integrity
- Replicating themselves
Quiz Question: These functions are carried out by the cell’s subunits called ORGANELLES.
In addition the human cell is made up of three main parts:
- Plasma membrane: the outer boundary of the cell
- Cytoplasm: found internally from the plasma membrane which is part of the cell and surrounds the nucleus
- Nucleus: controls cell activities and is found near the center of the cell
Now let’ go over the cells structure and their functions:
Function of the Cell’s Organelles:
Chromatin: Responsible for packaging DNA into a smaller volume to fit in the cell, reinforcing mitosis, prevents DNA damage, control DNA replication.
Nucleolus: serves as the site of ribosome synthesis and assembly
Glycosomes: also called “sugar-containing bodies” store sugar in the form of glycogen for the cell’s main energy source.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum: responsible for lipid metabolism which makes and breaks down fats.
Cytosol: cytoplasmic matrix which is the liquid found inside cells
Lysosome: performs intracellular digestion
Mitochondrion: call the power-house of the cell and generate the energy of a cell so it can carry out its work.
Centrioles: found inside of the centrosome matrix (which is a cloud of protein)…main function is to produce aster and spindle during cell division.
Centrosome matrix: contains the centrioles and contain a cloud of protein
Microvilli: tiny, finger-like extensions of the plasma membrane that increases cell’s surface area.
Microfilament: helps form the cell’s cytoskeleton which helps in intracellular movement
Microtuble: gives the cell its shape an support and forms the centrioles
Intermediate Filaments: cytoskeletal elements that help the cell resist tension.
Peroxisome: “peroxide bodies” contains enzymes such as oxidase and catalase to detoxify the cell from free radicals.
Golgi apparatus: a stack of three to ten disc-shaped envelops bound by a membrane that sorts, processes, and packages proteins and membranes.
Ribosomes: the site of protein synthesis which are small, dark-staining granules that are constructed of proteins plus RNA (ribosomal).
Rough endoplasmic reticulum: makes the cell’s membrane
Plasma membrane: thin flexible layer that define the cell and separates it into two major fluid compartments called the intracellular fluid and extracellular fluid.
Nucleus: center core or kernel which is the control center of the cell. It’s genetic material is DNA.
Nuclear envelope: surrounds the nucleus, regulates passage of substances to and from the nucleus.
What part of the cell’s subunits is responsible for disposal of waste, maintaining its shape/integrity, and replicating itself?
- Plasma Membrane
The outer boundary of the cell which makes up the three main parts of the human cell is the?
- Plasma membrane
Click here to take rest of the quiz.
Answers: 3, 1