This quiz for hyponatremia and hypernatremia will test your ability to differentiate the causes, signs & symptoms, and nursing intervention between these two conditions.
The NCLEX exam and your nursing lecture exams will ask you questions about how to provide care to patients with low or high calcium levels.
The questions on this quiz are some of the most common exam questions students are asked about hyponatremia and hypernatremia.
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Teaching Tutorials on Hyponatremia & Hypernatremia
Quiz on Hyponatremia & Hypernatremia Electrolytes
1. A patient has a sodium level of 123 and presents with confusion. The doctor diagnoses the patient with Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion (SIADH). Which type of hyponatremia is this?
The answer is B: Euvolemic
2. A patient with a sodium level of 112 is taking Lithium. Which of the following is a nursing priority?
A. Hold further doses of Lithium
B. Monitor Lithium drug level due to risk of toxicity
C. Monitor potassium level due to increased risk of toxicity
D. No priority is need. 112 is a normal sodium level
The answer is B: Monitor Lithium drug level due to risk of toxicity
3. A patient with a sodium level of 178 is ordered to be started on 0.45% Saline. What is the most IMPORTANT nursing intervention for this patient?
A. Maintain patent IV
B. Give rapidly to ensure fluids levels are shifted properly
C. Clarify doctor’s order because 0.45% saline is contraindicated in hypernatremia
D. Give slowly and watch for signs and symptoms of cerebral edema
The answer is D: Give slowly and watch for signs and symptoms of cerebral edema. The most important intervention is to give slowly and watch for S&S of cerebral edema because a hypotonic solution can cause rapid swelling of the cell. Maintain a patent IV is correct but not the most important option in this scenario.
4. You have completed diet teaching with a patient who has hypernatremia. Which statement by the patient causes concern?
A. “I will buy fresh vegetables and fruits.”
B. “I will avoid eating canned foods.”
C. “I’m glad I can still eat sandwiches with bologna.”
D. “I will avoid cooking with butter.”
The answer is C: “I’m glad I can still eat sandwiches with bologna.”
5. A patient with Cushing’s Syndrome has been experiencing an infection and has a fever of 102’F. On assessment, you find the patient to be confused, restless, has dry mucous membranes, and flushed skin. Which finding below correlates with the presentation of this patient?
A. Sodium level of 144
B. Sodium level of 115
C. Sodium level of 170
D. Sodium level of 135
The answer is C: Sodium level of 170
6. Which patient below is considered hypernatremic?
A. A patient with a sodium level of 155
B. A patient with a sodium level of 145
C. A patient with a sodium level of 120
D. A patient with a sodium level of 136
The answer is A: A patient with a sodium level of 155
7. A patient with a sodium level of 115 is ordered to start Declomycin. Which statement is NOT true about this medication?
A. “Declomycin is an antidiuretic hormone antagonist that treats SIADH.”
B. “Declomycin is part of the tetracycline family.”
C. “Declomycin is to be taken with food, preferably, milk.”
D. “Declomycin is contraindicated in children and pregnant/nursing women.”
The answer is C: “Declomycin is to be taken with food, preferably, milk.” Declomycin binds to cations (calcium) and this affects GI absorption…it should be given without food.
8. A patient with hypovolemic hyponatremia is started on IV fluids. Which of the following fluids do you expect the patient to be started on?
A. 0.45% Saline
B. 3% Saline
D. 0.33% Saline
The answer is B: 3% Saline Patients with hypovolemic hyponatremia are started on a hypertonic solution (the circulatory system is dehydrated & and the cells are swollen…so a hypertonic solution will shrink the cells and increase fluid volume) and 3% Saline is the only hypertonic solutions. The other options are either hypotonic or isotonic.
9. A patient has a sodium level of 119. Which of the following is NOT related to this finding?
A. Over secretion of ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
B. Low salt diet
C. Inadequate water intake
D. Hypotonic fluid infusion (overload)
The answer is C: Inadequate water intake
10. Which patient below is at risk for experiencing Hypovolemic Hyponatremia?
A. Patient with congestive heart failure
B. Patient with cirrhosis of the liver
C. Patient on IV saline at 250 cc/hr
D. Patient with nasogastric tube suction experiencing diarrhea
The answer is D: Patient with nasogastric tube suction experiencing diarrhea
11. A patient has a sodium level of 130. What is this condition called?
C. Normal Sodium Level
The answer is A: Hyponatremia
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